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In 1982 the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) accepted as a preliminary a formulation put forward by Mr José R Martínez-Cobo Special Rapporteur on Discrimination against Indigenous Populations This has some limitations because the applies mainly to pre-colonial populations and would likely exclude other isolated or marginal societies.[11]

In Europe present-day indigenous populations as recognized by the UN are relatively few mainly confined to its north and far east Nevertheless the ethnic groups traditionally inhabiting most if not all European countries are considered to be indigenous to Europe This includes the majority populations. The remains at least 25 miniature humans who lived between 1,000 and 3,000 years ago were recently found on the islands Palau in Micronesia.[40] In Australia the indigenous populations are the Aboriginal Australians within which are many different nations and tribes and the Torres Strait Islanders These groups are ten spoken as Indigenous Australians. The Inuit have achieved a degree administrative autonomy with the creation in 1999 the territories Nunavik (in Northern Québec) Nunatsiavut (in Northern Labrador) and Nunavut which was until 1999 a part the Northwest Territories The self-ruling Danish territory Greenland is also home to a majority population indigenous Inuit (about 85%) In the United States the combined populations Native Americans Inuit and other indigenous designations totalled 2,786,652 (constituting about 1.5% 2003 US census figures) Some 563 scheduled tribes are recognized at the federal level and a number others recognized at the. Greco-Roman society flourished between 250 BC and 480 AD and commanded successive waves conquests that gripped more than half the globe But because already existent populations within other parts Europe at the time classical antiquity had more in common culturally speaking with the Greco-Roman world the intricacies involved in expansion across the European frontier were not so contentious relative to indigenous issues.[15] Though the vast majority African peoples are indigenous in the sense that they originate from that continent—in practice identity as an indigenous people per the modern is more restrictive and certainly not every African ethnic group claims identification under these terms Groups and communities who do claim this recognition are those who by a variety historical and environmental circumstances have been placed outside the dominant state systems and whose traditional practices and land claims ten come into conflict with the objectives and policies implemented by governments companies and surrounding dominant societies. During the 17th century indigenous peoples were commonly labeled "uncivilized" Some philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes considered indigenous people to be merely 'savages' while others are purported to have considered them to be "noble savages" Those who were close to the Hobbesian view tended to believe themselves to have a duty to "civilize" and "modernize" the indigenous Although anthropologists especially from Europe used to apply these terms to all tribal cultures it has fallen into disfavor as demeaning and is according to many anthropologists not only inaccurate but dangerous. In Brazil the term índio (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈĩdʒi.u] or ˈĩdʒju) is used by most the population the media the indigenous peoples themselves and even the government (FUNAI is acronym for the Fundação Nacional do Índio) (National Indio Foundation) although its Hispanic equivalent indio is widely not considered politically correct and falling into disuse. Although the original theoretic development hybridity addressed the narratives cultural imperialism Bhabha's work also comprehends the cultural politics the condition being "a migrant" in the contemporary metropolis Yet hybridity no longer is solely associated with migrant populations and with border towns it also applies contextually to the flow cultures and their interactions. Notable minority indigenous populations in Europe include the Basque people northern Spain and southern France the Sami people northern Scandinavia the |date=February 2018}} the Nenets Samoyedic and Komi peoples northern Russia and the Circassians southern Russia and the North Caucasus. The most substantial populations of indigenous people are in India which constitutionally recognizes a range of "Scheduled Castes and Tribes" within its borders These various peoples (collectively referred to as Dalit Adivasis and tribal peoples) number about 200 million (1991 census figures approximately 25% of the total national population). After World War I however many Europeans came to doubt the morality the means used to "civilize" peoples At the same time the anti-colonial movement and advocates indigenous peoples argued that words such as "civilized" and "savage" were products and tools colonialism and argued that colonialism itself was savagely destructive In the mid 20th century European attitudes began to shift to the view that indigenous and tribal peoples should have the right to decide for themselves what should happen to their ancient cultures and ancestral lands. Indigenous peoples confront a diverse range concerns associated with their status and interaction with other cultural groups as well as changes in their inhabited environment Some challenges are specific to particular groups; however other challenges are commonly experienced.[42] These issues include cultural and linguistic preservation land rights ownership and exploitation natural resources political determination and autonomy environmental degradation and incursion poverty health and discrimination. Contemporary distinct indigenous groups survive in populations ranging from only a few dozen to hundreds thousands and more Many indigenous populations have undergone a dramatic decline and even extinction and remain threatened in many parts the world Some have also been assimilated by other populations or have undergone many other changes In other cases indigenous populations are undergoing a recovery or expansion in numbers. You're using an out--date version Internet browse and the wider internet faster and more securely please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. The indigenous people Northern Iraq are the Assyrians.[31] They claim descent from the ancient Neo-Assyrian Empire and Akkadians and lived in what was Assyria their original homeland Their homeland is primarily occupied by the Kurdish autonomous region. The Degar (Montagnards) are the natives the Central Highlands (Vietnam) and were conquered by the Vietnamese in the Nam tiến The Khmer Krom are the native people the Mekong Delta and Saigon which were acquired by Vietnam from Cambodian King Chey Chettha II in exchange for a Vietnamese princess. International Day the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August. Indigenous peoples the American continent are broadly recognized as being those groups and their descendants who inhabited the region before the arrival European colonizers and settlers (i.e Pre-Columbian) Indigenous peoples who maintain or seek to maintain traditional ways life are found from the high Arctic north to the southern extremities Tierra. North America It is also sometimes argued that it is important for the human species as a whole to preserve a wide range cultural diversity as possible and that the protection indigenous cultures is vital to this enterprise. The rapid and extensive spread the various European powers from the early 15th century onwards had a pround impact upon many the indigenous cultures with whom they came into contact The exploratory and colonial ventures in the Americas Africa Asia and the Pacific ten resulted in territorial and cultural conflict and the intentional or unintentional displacement and devastation the indigenous populations The Canary Islands had an indigenous population called the Guanches whose origin is still the subject discussion among historians and linguists.[16] The Jats are indigenous people ancient India and can be tracked down to 4th century BC.[32] North Asia[edit] The Russians invaded Siberia and conquered the indigenous natives in the 17th-18th centuries. In most parts Oceania indigenous peoples outnumber the descendants colonists Exceptions include New Zealand and Hawaii According to the 2013 census New Zealand Māori make up 14.9% the population New Zealand with less than half (46.5%) all Māori residents identifying solely as Māori The Māori are indigenous to Polynesia and settled New Zealand relatively recently the migrations were thought to have occurred in the 13th century CE In New Zealand pre-contact Māori tribes were not a single people thus the more recent grouping into tribal (iwi) arrangements has become a more formal arrangement in more recent times Many Māori tribal leaders signed a treaty with the British the Treaty Waitangi which formed the modern geo-political entity that is New Zealand. Africa The vast regions Asia contain the majority the world's present-day Indigenous populations about 70% according to IWGIA figures.[30] Loading PreviewSorry preview is currently unavailable You can download the paper by clicking the button above. The independent state Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a majority population indigenous societies with more than 700 different tribal groups recognized out a total population 8 million.[41] The PNG Constitution and other Acts identify traditional or custom-based practices and land tenure and explicitly set out to promote the viability these traditional societies within the modern state However conflicts and disputes concerning land use and resource rights continue between indigenous groups the government and corporate entities. But when it came to expansion in other parts the world namely Asia Africa and the Middle East then totally new cultural dynamics had entered into the equation so to speak and one sees here what was to take the Americas South East Asia and the Pacific by storm a few hundred years later The idea that peoples who possessed cultural customs and racial appearances strikingly different from those the colonizing power is no new idea borne out the Medieval period or the Enlightenment.

Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō the Kuril Islands and much Sakhalin As Japanese settlement expanded the Ainu were pushed northward and fought against the Japanese in Shakushain's Revolt and Menashi-Kunashir Rebellion until by the Meiji period they were confined by the government to a small area in Hokkaidō in a manner similar to the placing Native Americans on reservations.[34] The status the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an effectively marginalized isolated or minimally participative one in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is very frequently limited This situation can persist even in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that the other inhabitants the region or state; the defining notion here is one separation from decision and regulatory processes that have some at least titular influence over aspects their community and land rights.

Linguistic hybridity and the case mixed languages challenge the Tree Model in linguistics For example "Israeli" (a term for Modern Hebrew) has been argued to be a Semito-European hybrid language that "demonstrates that the reality linguistic genesis is far more complex than a simple family tree system allows 'Revived' languages are unlikely to have a single parent."[28] Europe Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a. Asia The Dzungar Oirats are the natives Dzungaria in Northern Xinjiang The Pamiris are the native people Tashkurgan in Xinjiang The Ryukyuan people are indigenous to the Ryukyu Islands. The primary impetus in considering indigenous identity comes from the post-colonial movements and considering the historical impacts on populations by the European imperialism The first paragraph the Introduction a report published in 2009 by the Secretariat the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues published a report,[12] states They form at present non-dominant sectors society and are determined to preserve develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories and their ethnic identity as the basis their continued existence as peoples in accordance with their own cultural patterns social institutions and legal system The International Day the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date the first meeting in 1982 the United Nations Working Group Indigenous Populations the Subcommission on Prevention Discrimination and Protection Minorities the Commission on Human Rights. The languages Taiwanese aborigines have significance in historical linguistics since in all likelihood Taiwan was the place origin the entire Austronesian language family which spread across Oceania.[35][36][37] Throughout history different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms Indigenous people also include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment present state boundaries—who retain some or all their own social economic cultural and political institutions but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains. Certain indigenous societies survive even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands owing to migration relocation forced resettlement or having been supplanted by other cultural groups In many other respects the transformation culture indigenous groups is ongoing and includes permanent loss language loss lands encroachment on traditional territories and disruption in traditional lifeways due to contamination and pollution waters. The development hybridity theory as a discourse anti-essentialism marked the height the popularity academic "hybridity talk" However the usage hybridity in theory to eliminate essentialist thinking and practices (namely racism) failed as hybridity itself is prone to the same essentialist framework and thus requires and placement A number arguments have followed in which promoters and detractors argue the uses hybridity theory Much this debate can be criticized as being excessively bogged down in theory and pertaining to some unhelpful quarrels on the direction hybridity should progress e.g attached to racial theory post-colonialism cultural studies or globalization Sociologist Jan Nederveen Pieterse highlights these core arguments in a debate that promotes hybridity.[15] Oceania Indigenous communities peoples and nations are those that having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories consider themselves distinct from other sectors the societies now prevailing in those territories or parts them They form at present non-dominant sectors society and are determined to preserve develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories and their ethnic identity as the basis their continued existence as peoples in accordance with their own cultural patterns social institutions and legal systems. The interaction between indigenous and non-indigenous societies throughout history has been complex ranging from outright conflict and subjugation to some degree mutual benefit and cultural transfer A particular aspect anthropological study involves investigation into the ramifications what is termed first contact the study what occurs when two cultures first encounter one another The situation can be further confused when there is a complicated or contested history migration and population a given region which can give rise to disputes about primacy and ownership the land and resources. Indigenous societies range from those who have been significantly exposed to the colonizing or expansionary activities other societies (such as the Maya peoples Mexico and Central America) through to those who as yet remain in comparative isolation from any external influence (such as the Sentinelese and Jarawa the Andaman Islands). South America In the post-colonial period the concept specific indigenous peoples within the African continent has gained wider acceptance although not without controversy The highly diverse and numerous ethnic groups that comprise most modern independent African states contain within them various peoples whose situation cultures and pastoralist or hunter-gatherer lifestyles are generally marginalized and set apart from the dominant political and economic structures the nation Since the late 20th century these peoples have increasingly sought recognition their rights as distinct indigenous peoples in both national and international contexts. The Yazidis are indigenous to the Sinjar mountain range in northern Iraq.[citation needed] Both Hindu and Chams have experienced religious and ethnic persecution and restrictions on their faith under the current Vietnamese government with the Vietnamese state confisticating Cham property and forbidding Cham from observing their religious beliefs Hindu temples were turned into tourist sites against the wishes of the Cham Hindus In 2010 and 2013 several incidents occurred in Thành Tín and Phươc Nhơn villages where Cham were murdered by Vietnamese In 2012 Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque stole the electric generator and also raped Cham girls.[49] Cham in the Mekong Delta have also been economically marginalised with ethnic Vietnamese settling on land previously owned by Cham people with state support.[50] Indigenous peoples have been denoted primitives savages[63] or uncivilized These terms were common during the heights European colonial expansion but still continue in certain societies in modern times [64] The presence external laws claims and cultural mores either potentially or actually act to variously constrain the practices and observances an indigenous society These constraints can be observed even when the indigenous society is regulated largely by its own tradition and custom They may be purposefully imposed or arise as unintended consequence trans-cultural interaction They may have a measurable effect even where countered by other external influences and actions deemed beneficial or that promote indigenous rights and interests. That critique cultural imperialist hybridity meant that the rhetoric hybridity progressed to challenging essentialism and is applied to sociological theories identity multiculturalism and racism Moreover polyphony is another important element hybridity theory by Mikhail Bakhtin which is applied to hybrid discourses presented in folklore and anthropology.[14] In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people Japan the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture even after being ruled over by the majority group while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture the former group requires greater consideration."[10] Precise estimates for the total population the world's Indigenous peoples are very difficult to compile given the difficulties in identification and the variances and inadequacies available census data The United Nations estimates that there are over 370 million indigenous people living in over 70 countries worldwide.[17] This would equate to just fewer than 6% the total world population This includes at least 5000 distinct peoples[18] in over 72 countries. Survival International runs a campaign to stamp out media portrayal indigenous peoples as 'primitive' or 'savages'.[65] Friends Peoples Close to Nature considers not only that indigenous culture should be respected as not being inferior but also sees their way life as a lesson sustainability and a part the struggle within the "corrupted" western world from which the threat stems.[66] In Indonesia there are 50 to 70 million people who classify as indigenous peoples.[38] However the Indonesian government does not recognize the existence indigenous peoples classifying every Native Indonesian ethnic group as "indigenous" despite the clear cultural distinctions certain groups.[39] This problem is shared by many other countries in the ASEAN region. In December 1993 the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the International Decade the World's Indigenous People and requested UN specialized agencies to consider with governments and indigenous people how they can contribute to the success the Decade Indigenous People commencing in December 1994 As a consequence the World Health Organization at its Forty-seventh World Health Assembly established a core advisory group indigenous representatives with special knowledge the health needs and resources their communities thus beginning a long-term commitment to the issue the health indigenous peoples.[57] For centuries since the time their colonization conquest or occupation indigenous peoples have documented histories resistance interface or cooperation with states thus demonstrating their conviction and determination to survive with their distinct sovereign identities Indeed indigenous peoples were ten recognized as sovereign peoples by states as witnessed by the hundreds treaties concluded between indigenous peoples and the governments the United States Canada New Zealand and others.[13] The Malay Singaporeans are the indigenous people Singapore inhabiting it since the Austronesian migration They have established Kingdom Singapura back in the 13th century The name Singapore itself comes from the Malay word Singapura (Singa=Lion Pura=City) which means the Lion City The Cham are the indigenous people the former state Champa which was conquered by Vietnam in the Cham–Vietnamese wars during Nam tiến The Cham in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. James Anaya former Special Rapporteur on the Rights Indigenous Peoples has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants pre-invasion inhabitants lands now dominated by others They are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born forces empire and conquest".[8][9] In Mexico approximately 6,000,000 (constituting about 6.7% 2005 Mexican census figures) identify as Indígenas (Spanish for natives or indigenous peoples) In the southern states Chiapas Yucatán and Oaxaca they constitute 26.1% 33.5% and 35.3% respectively the population In these states several conflicts and episodes civil war have been conducted in which the situation and participation indigenous societies were notable factors (see for example EZLN). The impact European colonization the Americas on the indigenous communities has been in general quite severe with many authorities estimating ranges significant population decline primarily due to disease but also violence The extent this impact is the subject much continuing debate Several peoples shortly thereafter became extinct or very nearly so. Indigenous populations are distributed in regions throughout the globe The numbers condition and experience indigenous groups may vary widely within a given region A comprehensive survey is further complicated by sometimes contentious membership and identification. Nivkh people are an ethnic group indigenous to Sakhalin having a few speakers the Nivkh language but their fisher culture has been endangered due to the development oil field Sakhalin. The Amerindians make up 0.4% all Brazilian population or about 700,000 people.[28] Indigenous peoples are found in the entire territory Brazil although the majority them live in Indian reservations in the North and Center-Western part the country On 18 January 2007 FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil up from 40 in 2005 With this addition Brazil has now overtaken the island New Guinea as the country having the largest number uncontacted tribes.[29]